(E) Pneumatic actuators: These use compressed air to function. With few moving parts, they’re reliable and easy to maintain. They lack the control over speed, position and precision offered by other types, but they’re an ideal choice for warehousing tasks like picking and stowing.
(E) Hydraulic actuators: These are a good choice for larger robots carrying heavy payloads. Instead of air, they use a pumped, oil-based fluid to provide motion. Although bulkier and noisier than other types, they’re accurate — at the expense of possible fluid leakages over time.
(E) Electric actuators: Electric motors translate a source of electricity into mechanical energy. These are the most common type in all robot categories today because electricity is a relatively plentiful resource. They also function well in robots of all sizes, are compact relative to their power output and are easier to maintain with virtually zero pollution.
(E) Although electric actuators are the most common and serve the widest range of functions in robotics, they can pose a risk in environments containing explosives. They also require a more complex command system compared to other motor types.
(E) Within the electric motors category, there are several different kinds. This class includes the following types:
(E) Alternating current (AC) motors: Alternating current is available in common wall outlets. AC motors employ this abundant energy source to generate electromagnetic induction. Engineers favor AC mechanisms in situations that demand consistent velocity. However, they’re a rare sight outside of industrial-scale, high-torque robotics.
(K) 교류모터: 교류는벽면콘센트를통해이용할수있다. AC 모터는전자기유도를생성하기위해풍부한에너지원을이용한다. 일반적으로엔지니어들은일정한속도가요구되는상황에서 AC 매커니즘을선호한다. 하지만산업규모와높은토크의로봇에서는잘사용하지않는다.
(E) Direct current (DC) motors: Instead of a wall socket, DC motors typically receive power from batteries. DC mechanisms appear in a wide range of sizes and provide highly variable load ranges, plus fast response times and mobility compared to plug-in models.
(K) 직류모터: 직류모터는벽면콘센트대신배터리로부터전력을받는다. DC 매커니즘은다양한크기로나타나고로드범위가가변적이면서플러그인모델에비해빠른응답시간과이동성을제공한다.
(E) Servo motors: Also simply called “servos,” including industrial servos, these are some of the highest-precision motors available. They support virtually instant error adjustments while in operation. If you need precise positioning plus high torque in a small package, these motors are excellent for robotic arms and other robot and cobot types. There can be a delay between motions when working with servos.
(E) Stepper motors: Stepper motors operate in very small increments to provide high torque while holding an object — as well as exact positioning for each step. Precision for these motors tends to be on the order of 0.01 degrees and 0.1 mm. The overall torque is similar to servo motors. Stepper motors are somewhat costlier to operate than other types regarding required electricity.
(K) 스테퍼모터: 물체를잡고높은토크를제공할뿐만아니라단계별로정확한위치를제공하기위해매우작은단위로움직인다. 모터의정밀도는대략 0.01도와 0.1mm 수준이다. 전체토크는서보모터와유사하다. 스테퍼모터는필요한전기와관련해다른유형보다작동비용이다소높다.
(E) HOW DO YOU CHOOSE THE RIGHT MOTOR FOR YOUR ROBOT?
(E) You can review the points above to narrow down your choice of motor for your next robotics project. Before you re-read all that, though, create a list of the can’t-miss features you need in your robot.
(E) What task will it perform, and what’s your margin of error for its movements?
(K) 그리고어떤작업을수행할것이며, 이동범위에대한오차는어느정도인가?
(E) Study the regulatory environment closely to understand your tolerance for contamination, as well. Motor contamination isn’t just the leading cause of failure in motors — it’s also a threat to product quality in risk-averse manufacturing environments. (K) 또한오혐에대한내성을이해하기위해규제내용을꼼꼼히확인해보아라. 모터오염은모터고장의원인이될뿐만아니라제품품질도악영향을끼칠수있다.
(E) In other words, you wouldn’t necessarily match up a hydraulic actuator with high-finesse, high-cleanliness facilities like food or drug manufacturing.
(E) These are the other main points to look for as you study various robotic motor types:
(E) Size to power ratio: At what scale are you building? Does the robot need to navigate tight quarters, or is raw power more important than size?